English definite and indefinite articles a, an and the

A, An, The" definite and indefinite articles in English

The indefinite article a/an
تستخدم مع الاسماء المعدودة المفردة

is used before singular countable nouns. We use a before nouns which begin with a constant sound and an before nouns  which begin with a vowel sound.

It is a dog.
تستخدم ( a ) مع الاسماء المعدودة في اللغة الانجليزية التي تبدأ باحد الحروف الانجليزية المتحركة ( a,u,o,i,e)

This is an apple.
تستخدم (an)  اذا بدات الكلمة بحرف تابث ( جميع الحروف الانجليزية ماعدا الحروف المتحركة السابقة)  

We don't use a/an
لا نستخدم الاداتين a and an  مع الاسماء الغير معدودة و الجمع وانما تستبدل ب some
with uncountable or plural nouns.We can use  "some instead"
some chocolate
some eggs.

with adjectives
مع الصفات
استخدم اداة التنكير قبل الصفة

It's an expensive car.
It's a fast car.

Definite Article "The"
أداة التعريف
تستخدم مع الاسماء المفردة ومع الجمع

is used with singular and plural nouns : "the men" "the man" "the girl"

The dog in the picture is big. 

We don't use "the"
لا تستخدم ادوات التنكير قبل
We use "the"
  • with plural nouns when we talk about them in general.  مع الجمع
Lions are wild animals. (which lions? All lions in general!.)
  • before proper nouns الاسماء
This is Tom.
  • before names of meals (breakfast, ,lunch, dinner, etc) مع الوجبات والرياضة
and games/sports (golf, tennis, basketball, etc)

Football is an exciting sport.

  • with the words this/that/these/those  مع اسماء الاشارة
this car, those bicycles

Not: This the car.

  • with the words school, bed, hospital,
    prison, home when we refer to the purpose for which they exist.

I go to school at 7:00 in the morning. (I'm a student.)

  • with nouns mentioned before or already known. in other words, when we can answer the question "Who?" or "Which?" يستخدم لىشارة الى شيء تم ذكره سابقا او معروف
 I can see a book. The book is red.
Which book? The red book in the picture.

  • with nouns which are unique. مع الاسماء المميزة الفريدة
the earth, the sky, the moon

  • before the names of rivers, seas/oceans, mountain قبل اسماء الانهار والمحيطات
the Nile, the Atlantic, the Alps, the USA
  • before the names of musical instruments قبل اسماء الادوات المسيقية
the piano, the guitar
  • before nationalities and families قبل الجنسيات واسم العائلة
the Italians, the Arabian the smiths
  • before the words morning, afternoon, evening قبل الكلمات 
I go to school in the morning.

اختبار ادوات التعريف والتنكير
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